TOXICOLOGICAL AND REVERSIBILITY ASSESSMENT OF ETHANOL SEED EXTRACT OF CITRUS PARADISI MACFAD (GRAPEFRUIT) ON HAEMATOLOGIC AND TESTICULAR FUNCTIONS IN RODENTS
The effects of ethanol seeds extract of Citrus paradisiMacfad (CPE) was investigated for its effects on blood parameters and testicular toxicities after 90 days treatment and 14 days reversibility in rats, with a view to assessing its health concerns on blood indices and male fertility.The median lethal dose (LD50) was determined using the limit dose test of the Up-and-Down Method. Forty adult male Wistar rats divided into four groups (10 per group) were orally-treated daily with 10 ml/kg normal saline (control) and three extract-treated groups (CPE 4, 40 and 400) mg/kg body weight respectively. After 90 days, animals were sacrificed and blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for haematological analyses. The testes were eviscerated, blotted, weighed, sectioned and fixed in formalin for histopathological examination. Other animals were retained for reversibility studies. Results revealed that the Extract significantly (P<0.05) elevated red blood cell count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and platelet count at 400 mg/kg as well as increased lymphocyte at all doses, but decreased mean corpuscular haemoglobin dose-dependently. However, neutrophil and monocyte differentials were significantly decreased. Furthermore, Sperm count motility and normal morphology was significantly reduced at 40 and 400 mg/kg. Histopathology of the testes showed some forms of pathologies. Reversibility studies showed reversal of test effects on extract discontinuation. Contrary to the tradomedical claims that CPE is devoid of toxicities, this study showed CPE to be selectively toxic to the leucocyte lineages and sperm cells, especially on long term use.