CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIOXIDATIVE BURST, ANTICANCER AND ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITIES OF PANICUM MAXIMUM
Panicum maximum.Jacq (Poacace), a perennial grass used widely as fodder and medicine to treat various ailment and diseases was evaluated Cytotoxic/anticancer, immunomodulatory and antinfective properties of leaf extract and fractions of Panicum maximum. The leaf extract and fractions of Panicum maximum were investigated for anticancer activity against HeLa cells using SRB method. Immunomodulatory activity of the extract in whole blood, neutrophils and macrophages was also investigated using luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. The extract was similarly screened for antileishmanial activity against promastigotes of Leishmania major in vitro. The GCMS analysis of the most active fraction against HeLa cells was carried. The leaf extract was found to exert significant anticancer activity with the hexane fraction exhibiting the most pronounced effect (GI50 -38.6±0.87µg/ml, LC 50-98.3±0.16 µg/ml, TGI -59.6±0.46 µg/ml). The extract prominently inhibited oxidative burst activity in whole blood (–30.4 – 0.2%), isolated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs)(33.4 – 85.90%) and mononuclear cells (MNCs)(9.90 – 93.0%) when two different phagocytosis activators (serum opsonizing zymosanA and PMA) were used. The extract also exhibited moderate antileishmanial activity against promastigotes of Leishmania major in vitro. GCMS analysis of active fraction revealed pharmacologically active compounds. These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of Panicum maximum possess anticancer, immunomodulatory and antileishmanial activities and these justify its use in ethnomedicine to inflammatory diseases and microbial infections.